elaborated with the help of the Keros classification. classification was used for the measurement of the depth of the olfactory fossa as follows. To determine the Keros classification and asymmetrical distribution rates of the ethmoid roof and the frequency of anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses. Acta Otolaryngol. Feb;(2) doi: / Epub Sep 9. Is the Keros classification alone enough to identify.

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As regards the olfactory fossae depth, the Keros’ type II was most frequently found.

Retrospective analysis of coronal computed tomography studies of paranasal sinuses performed in the period between August and December, High-risk areas in endoscopic sinus surgery and prevention of complications. Radiological classification of anterior skull base anatomy prior to performing medial orbital wall decompression.

The sample comprised consecutive CT exams, without clinical validation.

Stammberger H, Hawke M, editors. In adults, the olfactory recess is a variable depression in the cribriform plate that medially is bounded by the perpendicular plate and laterally by the lateral lamella. On the practical value of differences in the level of the lamina cribrosa of the ethmoid. The right and left sides were classified as having different Keros types in 5. The paranasal sinus variations in each patient should be carefully evaluated. The ethmoid roof configuration may present asymmetry in the height and angulation between sides in a same individual 6, Bilateral maxillary sinus hypoplasia was not detected.


Of the cases with asymmetry, the ethmoid roof height was lower on the right side in The depth of the olfactory fossa is determined by the height of the lateral lamella of the cribriform plate.

This difference was statistically significant. All shootings were performed on a coronal plane kero a perpendicular projection from the hard palate with a 2. Optimal CT evaluation for functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

Kainz J, Stammberger H. In their study on Chinese cases, Fan et al.

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CT examination for endoscopic sinus surgery. This structure makes up the anterior and inferior wall of the recess [ 13 ]. Measurements were performed using the distance measurement technique in the coronal plane. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol.

Radiology info hub: Keros Classification

The fovea ethmoidalis is a part of the frontal bone that separates the ethmoidal cells from the anterior cranial fossa. The average height of the LLCP was 4.

There was no statistically significant difference between genders for the other variations. In the study presented here, of the 1, total examinations two sides in each patient The analsis of anterior skull base from two different perspectives: Anterior clinoid process pneumatization: The roof of the anterior ethmoid: A study of radiologic anatomy. The evaluation of the depth of the olfactory fossae and presence of ethmoidal roof asymmetry represents a significant aspect in tomographic studies, and should be included in the routine description of tomographic reports, considering the significant implication of these structures in the risk at endoscopic nasal surgeries.


Conflict of interest statement: CT examinations should be used to explore the paranasal sinuses in the preoperative period because they provide a map for the surgical procedure and assist in complication avoidance.

Keros classification of olfactory fossa | Radiology Reference Article |

With classificahion in endoscopic sinus surgery, CT examination has become a part of preoperative evaluation. The average height of the lateral lamella cribriform plate LLCP was 4. This structure is localized between the skull base and the sphenoid sinus.