Their successful use as temporary cystostomy tubes has been reported in 10 dogs and one cat.9 Reasons for use included urethral trauma in six cases, prostatic. In this course, John Berg, DVM, MS, DACVS, will cover cystotomy surgery in dogs and cats, including: Types/causes of uroliths in dogs and cats; Choice of. Eighty-six (81%) practitioners reported administering peri-operative antimicrobials to dogs undergoing cystotomy, while 82 (77%) used antimicrobials in cats.

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Step-by-Step Cystotomy | Clinician’s Brief

Complications involving cystostomy tubes include surgery-related problems such as urine leakage, wound infection, or dehiscence; problems with the tube itself such as irritation at the stoma site, obstruction, or accidental dislodgment; and problems related to ascending infection due to the presence of the tube.

She pees little bits in the litter box. Further, post-operative continuation of antimicrobial administration was common, even when there was no evidence of infection or inflammation in the bladder, something that is of questionable need. However, the majority of respondents were the only observation from their specific location.

Accordingly, it was interesting that veterinarians who did not perform extracapsular cruciate repair reported a lower incidence of post-operative urolithiasis, despite the fact that there was only a slight and non-significant difference in the number of canine cystotomies performed and no difference in feline cystotomy numbers. When possible, the tube should exit cranial to the flank skinfold and lateral to the ventral midline for easier handling of the tube.

While unvalidated, it was based on the hypothesis that veterinarians who performed extracapsular cruciate repair had greater interest and experience with surgery. The catheter is generally removed between 24 and 72 hours after surgery. PE Prince Edward Island. LY Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Has Symptoms Not Eating. US Minor Outlying Islands. Dehiscence or suture line leakage is the result of infection, inadequately placed sutures, or increased intravesicular pressure secondary to impaired urine outflow.


There are few risks associated with cystotomy, since it is a relatively simple procedure. Veterinarians who used a dorsal approach had a mean of Add a comment to Reggie’s experience. Cystotomy is typically recommended to remove obstructions within the bladder, such as tumors, stones, and clots, which cannot be treated conservatively. She was seen at her post-op visit and she was fine. Creating a secure fixation between the bladder and body wall should also help reduce the risk of urine leakage into the abdomen if the tube is accidentally dislodged.

Efficacy of Cystotomy in Cats.

Table 5 Results of the univariable analysis of risk factors for association with veterinarians reporting the recurrence of bladder uroliths in patients following cystotomy. Armed Forces Americas Aa except Canada.

Cystotomyy a long tube dat used, the end of the tube is capped with a Luer-Lock adapter or three-way stopcock and the tube is secured to the skin with a finger-trap suture or flange fashioned from additional tubing material FIGURE 5. This may happen for many reasons, which is why the postoperative x-ray is imperative for ensuring all obstructions have been removed.

I also am concerned there are stones still present in her body, because she is passing 1 to 2 stones every time she urinates. MD Moldova, Republic of. Cystotomy Recovery in Cats. Veterinarians who consulted the literature for their surgical technique were less likely to have patients with recurrent stones OR 0.

Cystotomy is generally considered a safe and effective procedure which presents few complications. Simple interrupted, simple continuous, simple continuous oversewn with an inverting pattern eg, Cushingsingle layer Cushing pattern, and Cushing pattern oversewn with the Lembert pattern have all been used. Urinary tract infection UTI was confirmed in four cases at 2- or 4-week reexaminations but was successfully treated with antibiotics.

It was also concerning that not all veterinarians passed a urinary catheter and flushed retrograde intra-operatively and took post-operative radiographs to help ensure that all uroliths were removed.


The cystostomy tubes were in place ranging from 7 to 14 days.

Cystotomy practices and complications among general small animal practitioners in Ontario, Canada

The surgeon will remove obstructions such as bladder stones, clots, or tumors. Inappropriate antimicrobial use may increase risk of infection and cause untoward side effects, such as diarrhea and selection for antimicrobial resistance 8. It has been ranked the 1 most essential publication by small animal veterinarians for 9 years. If non-absorbable sutures are used, the surgeon will schedule a follow-up appointment for ten to fourteen days after surgery to remove them.

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The authors concluded that permanent tube cystostomy is an acceptable treatment for obstructive neoplasia when owners do not wish to pursue more aggressive surgical treatments or do not wish to euthanize their dogs because they are otherwise clinically healthy. The simple continuous pattern can be used in normal or thickened bladders.

However, he is constantly squatting in the litter box. DC District of Columbia. Mushroom-tip catheters have a more rigid tip, which makes them less likely to become dislodged, and their successful use as permanent or long-term cystostomy tubes has been described in six dogs with caf cell carcinoma of the bladder or urethra.

Accordingly, the authors do not suggest using these survey-based results to make definitive pre- intra- and post-operative surgical management recommendations, but rather as a platform for further areas of inquiry. Add a comment to Mason’s experience. Author Insight Perform cystotomy on ventral aspect of bladder for better exposure of the trigone area.

The surgeon may choose to place a catheter. Am J Vet Res. A long cystostomy tube should be secured with a light bandage, jacket, or T-shirt to prevent accidental dislodgment.