The assembly of a number of individual gas pipettes of the. Hempel type for a special purpose, as in the ordinary Orsat apparatus for flue gas analysis, is familiar. 3 INTRODUCTION To have proper control on combustion process, an idea about complete or complete combustion of fuel is made by the analysis of flue gas. Determination of calorific value of a fuel by Bomb calorimeter. ➢ Flue gas analysis by ORSAT apparatus. ➢ Study of valve timing diagram of Diesel Engine.
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STEP 2 The stopper of the absorption bulb, containing caustic potash solution, is opened and all the gas is forced into this bulb by raising the water reservoir.
Orsat gas analyser – Wikipedia
The other end is provided with a three-way stop-cock, the free end of which is further connected to a U-tube packed with glass wool for ny the incoming of any smoke particles, etc. Therefore, weight or gravimetric analysis can be converted into volumetric analysis by dividing the weight of the gas by its molecule weight to get the volume of anlaysis gas. Also indicates the short supply of oxygen for combustion ii if the flue gases contain a considerable amount of oxygen, it indicates the oxygen supply is in excess, though the combustion may be complete.
Generally, a;paratus composition of solid or liquid fuels is expressed by weight, whereas that of the gaseous fuels is expressed by volume. Outcomes Convert from moles to volume of a gas and vice versa at standard temperature and pressure Use the conversion. The graduated burette is surrounded by a water-jacket to keep the temperature of the gas constant during the experiment.
FLUE GAS ANALYSIS ORSAT APPARATUS.
Then the chemical equations can be written as. The base of the gas burette is connected to a levelling bottle to enable readings to be taken at constant pressure and to transfer the gas to and from the absorption media. Yb given below will show this procedure of converting volumetric analysis into gravimetric analysis.
The three cocks a, b, c and a three way cock are closed. In the power plants the amount of fuel used is very large and consequently the amount of air supplied to a boiler furnace is also great and so it cannot be measured directly. Thus, i if the gases contain considerable amount of carbon monoxide, it indicates that incomplete combustion is occurring i.
This method is very much useful when the composition of the fuel is now known. We will convert this volumetric analysis into gravimetric analysis and then the procedure is same as the above article.
Quantity of gsa dioxide is negligibly small and the water vapours are condensed and do not enter the flue gas. Since one mole of any gas occupies the same volume under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
Then their respective valves are closed. Hence, it is necessary that the flue gas is passed first through potassium hydroxide bulb, where CO2 is absorbed, then through alkaline pyrogallic acid bulb, when only O2 will be absorbed because CO2 has already been removed and finally through ammonical cuprous chloride bulb, where only CO will be absorbed.
Their stop-cocks are then closed. Auth with social network: Let C be the percentage of carbon in one kg of fuel and the percentage analysis of the dry flue gas by weight is as given below: Thereby, weights of all constituents of the flue or exhaust gases are determined and therefore total weight of the gas and then the percentage composition of the gas can be determined. Retrieved from ” https: This process of sucking and exhausting of gas is repeated times, so as to expel the air from the capillary connecting tubes, etc.
Metallurgy Job Interview Questions and Answers. The gas is then passed into the caustic potash burette, left to stand for about two minutes and then withdrawn, isolating the remaining gas via the stopcock arrangements.
When the combustion of the fuel takes place, the products of combustion will be carbon dioxide, sometimes carbon monoxide may also be present sulphur dioxide, vapour and nitrogen all the while, oxygen also will be present in the flue gases. Now the cock a is opened and the sample of the gas is forced into the first reagent pipette containing KOH by raising the aspirating bottle.
The aspirating bottle is lowered so that the eudiometer reads zero on graduated scale. And the percentage volumetric analysis of the dry products of combustion is given as.
Let C be the percentage by weight of carbon in the fuel. Now the three way cock is kept in the closed position. When the volumetric analysis of dry gas is given, then the amount of air supplied per kg of fuel can be obtained by any one of the following methods Carbon content of the fuel is not given directly: Chemical Absorption Reaction in orsat apparatus. The burette contains slightly acidulated water with a trace of chemical indicator typically methyl orange for colouration.
The flue gas is expelled by raising the aspirating bottle. Evaporating Petri Syracuse Watch glass. Please introduce links to this page from related articles ; try the Find link tool for suggestions. This procedure is repeated times to ensure a right sample of the gas taken for analysis.
This equation does take into consideration the complete combustion of carbon to carbon dioxide and hence approximation. The three way cock is open and the sample of flue gas is drawn in the measuring bottle.
Products of combustion are in the gaseous state and the analysis of the products of combustion will be in volumes or volumetric analysis will be obtained.
The illustrative examples will give the reader idea about the conversion of gravimetric into volumetric analysis and vice-versa. Once we have the analysis of the products of combustion by weight, we can convert this into volumetric analysis of the products of combustion. Instruments used in medical laboratories.