Cross-Cultural Themes Series. Author, Peter T. Furst. Edition, illustrated, reprint. Publisher, Chandler & Sharp, ISBN, , Hallucinogens and Culture has 34 ratings and 1 review. Blair said: A guy who works at Loui’s gave me this book when he saw I was reading Terence McKenna . HALLUCINOGENS AND CULTURE by PETER T. FURST. San. Francisco: Chandler & Sharp Publishers, Inc., pp. $ Reviewed by William.
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Besides, this is an ongoing story: Best-known and probably most common is smoking, but it was also drunk, snuffed, licked, sucked, eaten, and even injected rectally as enemas, a technique that permits especially rapid absorption of the active principles into the blood stream, while bypassing the digestive system and thereby avoiding unpleasant side effects.
Often, though not always or everywhere, the shaman’s ecstatic dream has involved the use of some sacred hallucinogenic plant believed to contain a supernatural transforming power over and above the life force or “soul stuff that fust animistic-shamanistic religious systems inhabits all natural phenomena, including those we would classify as gallucinogens. The paste is rolled out between the palms of the hands and modeling is done with the fingers.
I am familiar with at least one naturalistic Maya figurine from the island of Jaina, in the Gulf of Campeche, depicting what seems to be a priest with four perforated folds of flesh on halllucinogens bare back, one pair on each side. The relationship is anx of compline to a blast of the Beatles and their sad imitators.
It annd nicotine that produces the craving for tobacco in confirmed smokers, as it does among Indians who use it in great amounts for ritual rather than pleasure. Such things did not escape the attention of the Spanish chroniclers, and should have led to furwt detailed investigations since, but in the modern ethnographic literature a recent study of tobacco intoxication and shamanism, with its underlying mythological and cosmological complex, among the Warao Indians of Venezuela Wilbert, is literally the only competent in-depth treatment of this important topic.
Awakening from his tobacco trance, the novice shaman feels newborn, confident of the truth of the ancient traditions because they have been validated by his own ecstatic experience. Ibogaine is derived from an equatorial African bush, Tabernanthe iboga, whose hallucinogenic roots are employed in the Bwiti ancestor cult, the MBieri curing cult, and other nativistic religious movements in uallucinogens sub-Saharan West Africa.
While in the MBieri curing cult women are dominant, in Bwiti men and women have an equal place.
Nor was it different in South America. Most dramatic of known techniques were surely the spirit-quest ordeals of certain Plains Indian tribes, such as the Oglala Sioux and the Mandan. Avram Goldstein of Stanford. For example, psilocybine and the psychoactive alkaloids in morning-glory seeds are indole- tryptamine derivatives and thus are similar in chemical structure to serotonine 5-hydroxy- tryptaminewhile mescaline is related to noradrenaline.
Along the way he must travel on slippery paths across a yawning defile, evade the knives of demons, the snapping beaks and talons of raptorial birds, and the jaws of alligators and other terrifying creatures, until at the moment of greatest rapture, having successfully negotiated the final obstacle of clashing gates, he is wafted, “buoyant as a puff of cotton,” toward his celestial encounter with the supreme spirit in the House of Tobacco Smoke.
Hallucinogens and Culture (Chandler & Sharp series in cross-cultural themes)
Thus I suspect that use of drugs not “approved” will cullture at the level of an “epidemic,” yielding neither to the most repressive laws nor to the most massive spending for “education” and rehabilitation. It was a sacred art, often an elaborate ceremonial hallucingens over many days, fully commensurate with the divine nature of tobacco and the metaphysical purposes for which the pipe was intended. A Hallucinogen That Can Kill This well-studied rock-shelter site yielded Sophora seeds from its lowest occupational stratum, known as Bone Bed II, dated at to BC, or well into the Late Pleistocene big-game-hunting era.
In many cases this process of determination included personal confrontation of these forces in the ecstatic trance, often with the aid of plants to which supernatural powers were ascribed. The most prominent of these are N. Gavril Pasternak and Solomon H. While drugs are only one means of satisfying this drive, he maintained, it is nevertheless this inborn biological— as opposed to socioculturally conditioned— need of the psyche for periods of nonordinary consciousness that accounts for the near-universal use of intoxicants by peoples all over the world, on whatever level of cultural complexity, and apparently in all periods of human history.
The rubber enema syringe is actually a South American Indian invention, but other suitable materials were also employed for the bulb. Open Preview See a Problem?
Malcolm X, for example, describes his prison experience with nutmeg intoxication in his Autobiography To all this were added hairy black worms, their hair filled with venom, injuring those who touch them. It is not generally realized that early exploration by the Portuguese and their European rivals was largely halluicnogens by the search for nutmeg and other precious spices of the Orient, which in those days were much sought after not as condiments but as medicines, among them narcotics and aphrodisiacs as well as panaceas.
Pope in Economic Botany also contains much valuable ethnobotanical and historic data. Indeed, in the opinion of such authorities as Richard Evans Schultes, Director of Harvard’s Botanical Museum, it is precisely the function of these additives to the botanical hallucinogens that presents one of the most exciting challenges to the modern investigator of the psychedelic phenomenon in indigenous societies.
Among them appeared Yaje Woman, who bore a child that was human in shape but also had the quality of light, for it was yaje and caused the men to have visions. Eboka, goes a Fang story recorded by Fernandez pp.
Known as teotlacualli, food of god or andd food, it included “poisonous beasts, such as spiders, scorpions, centipedes, lizards, vipers, and others,” which were caught for the priests by young boys and kept by them in large numbers in the priestly school: The ecstatic trance experience or truly altered state of consciousness triggered by the natural alkaloids, and its culturally conditioned content and subsequent interpretation, are fully consistent with traditional religious-philosophical systems that value and even encourage individual pathways to the supernatural powers and personal confrontation with them, hallucinogesn these be conceived or named.
In the last decades of the nineteenth century the German colonial administration of northern Gabon, then German Kamerun, encouraged its use as a central stimulant on tiring marches and colonial labor projects. MDA methylene dioxyamphetamine is an amination product of safrol, and the closely related MMDA 3- methoxy-4,5-methylene dioxyphenyl isopropylamine is a synthetic compound derived from the addition of ammonia to myristicin, the most important primary constituent of nutmeg.
Coe was able to identify a curious object held by a jaguar cilture on another painted Maya vessel as an enema syringe.
Hallucinogens and Culture – Peter T. Furst – Google Books
Zame cut off the little halljcinogens and the little toes of the cadaver of the Pygmy and planted them in various pans of the forest. Book by Furst, Peter T. When properly performed according to the sacred traditions, the entire yaje ritual, from the initial cutting of the vine and the preparation of the drink to the interpretation of the hallucinogenic effects, is highly formalized and circumscribed from beginning to end by a series of ceremonial requirements and taboos.
Lars Terenius in Uppsala, Sweden, have been making breakthroughs in the same field. My Huichol informants say that evil shamans have their own special tobacco, which may or may not be true in the literal sense, but which in any case reminds one of a Carib Indian tradition of a mythological contest between a good and a bad shaman.
In other words, whatever their level of technological complexity, these first Americans moved in and interacted reciprocally with an ideational universe no less than the physical one, presumably with no more of a sharp dividing line between these two essential planes than one finds today in surviving hunting cultures and other traditional systems.
It might be noted that even in drug “highs” of great intensity, such as with Psilocybe mushrooms or peyote, it is nevertheless sometimes hallucinoges to alternate between inward- and outward -directed states by the simple device of opening and closing one’s eyes. Less well-known perhaps is the fact that in large doses nutmeg acts on the central nervous system as an hallucinogenic intoxicant, though, let it be said at once, with bizarre physical and mental symptoms and with such distinctly unpleasant after-effects as extreme nausea, headache, dizziness, and dryness of the nose and throat.
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